Common Name of Sodium Hydroxide ‘NaOH’

The common name for sodium hydroxide is “caustic soda” or simply “lye.” Sodium hydroxide is a highly versatile and industrially significant chemical compound with the chemical formula NaOH. This inorganic base is a white, odorless, and solid substance at room temperature. It is known for its strong alkaline properties and is used in various industrial, commercial, and household applications.

Physical Properties

  • State: Sodium hydroxide exists in solid form at room temperature, appearing as white, opaque crystals, pellets, or flakes.
  • Solubility: It is highly soluble in water, producing a solution that is highly alkaline.
  • Melting Point: Sodium hydroxide has a melting point of approximately 318 degrees Celsius (604 degrees Fahrenheit).

Chemical Properties

  • Alkalinity: Sodium hydroxide is a strong base and reacts vigorously with acids, forming water and a corresponding salt.
  • Hygroscopic Nature: It is hygroscopic, meaning it readily absorbs water from the atmosphere.
  • Corrosiveness: Sodium hydroxide is corrosive to various materials, including metals like aluminum.


  1. Industrial Cleaning: Sodium hydroxide is a key ingredient in many industrial cleaning products, particularly those used for degreasing and cleaning surfaces.
  2. Paper and Pulp Industry: It plays a crucial role in the paper and pulp industry in the pulping process to break down lignin and separate fibers.
  3. Soap and Detergent Production: Sodium hydroxide is used in the saponification process to manufacture soap and detergents.
  4. Water Treatment: It is employed for pH adjustment in water treatment plants to neutralize acidity.
  5. Food Processing: In the food industry, sodium hydroxide is used for various purposes, such as in the preparation of certain types of food, including pretzels.
  6. Chemical Manufacturing: It is a fundamental component in the production of various chemicals, including sodium salts and organic chemicals.
  7. Petroleum Industry: Sodium hydroxide is used in refining petroleum products.

Handling and Safety

  • Due to its corrosive nature, sodium hydroxide should be handled with care, and appropriate safety measures, such as protective gloves and eye protection, should be used.
  • Inhalation or contact with the skin should be avoided, and exposure to large quantities can cause severe burns and tissue damage.

Sodium hydroxide’s widespread use across various industries underscores its significance as a crucial chemical compound, contributing to processes that impact our daily lives. Despite its importance, caution must be exercised in its handling to ensure safety and prevent adverse effects.

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